Tuesday, 27 June 2017

When to use interface and abstract class?

An abstract class can have shared state or functionality.

An interface is only a promise to provide the state or functionality.

A good abstract class will reduce the amount of code that has to be rewritten because its functionality or state can be shared. The interface has no defined information to be shared.

In case of abstract classes we are defining characteristics of an object type, specifying what an object is but in the case of an interface we define a capability and we bond to provide that capability, we are talking about establishing a contract about what the object can do.

Check if a singly linked list is palindrome or not

Given a singly linked list of integers, check whether the linked list is palindrome or not using O(1) space complexity.

In this approach, we need to modify the existing linked list.
1) Get the middle of the linked list.
2) Reverse the second half of the linked list.
3) Check if the first half and second half are identical.
4) Construct the original linked list by reversing the second half again and attaching it back to the first half.

package com.geeks;
/**
 * Class to check whether integer list is palindrome or not.
 * @author rajesh.dixit
 */
public class PalidromeList {
     /** Node definition. */
     private static class Node {
           int data; Node next;

           Node(int data) {
                this.data = data;
                this.next = null;
           }
     }

     /**
      * @param head
      * @return String palindrome or not.
      */
     private static String checkListIsPalindrome(Node head) {
           boolean result = false;

           if(head==null) {
                System.out.println("List is null");
           } else if(head.next==null) {
                result = true;
           } else if(head.next.next==null) {
                result = (head.data == head.next.data);
           } else {

                /** Reverse the second half of linked list. */
                int len = reverseSecondHalfOfList(head);
               
                result = compareList(head, len);

                /** Reverse the second half of linked list to get original list. */
                reverseSecondHalfOfList(head);
           }
           return result == true?"Palindome":"Not Palindrome";
     }

     /**
      * Compare first and second half of list.
      * @param head
      * @param length
      * @return
      */
     private static boolean compareList(Node head, int length) {
           int counter = 0;
           Node start = head;
           Node end = head;
           Node secHalf = head;

           while(true) {
                if(counter++<length) {
                     end = end.next;
                } else {
                     secHalf = secHalf.next;
                     end = end.next;
                     if(end==null) {
                           break;
                     }
                }
           }

           boolean result = true;
           while(result && secHalf !=null) {
                result = (start.data==secHalf.data);
                start = start.next;
                secHalf = secHalf.next;
           }
           return result;
     }

     /** Reverse the second half of the list. */
     private static int reverseSecondHalfOfList(Node head) {
           Node p1 = head.next;
           Node p2 = p1.next;

           int counter = 0;
           while(p2!=null) {
                counter++;
                p2 = p2.next;
                if(p2==null) {
                     break;
                }
                p1 = p1.next; p2 = p2.next;
           }

           Node start = p1.next;
           Node temp = null;
           Node preNext = null;

           while (start != null) {
                temp = start.next;
                start.next = preNext;
                preNext = start;
                start = temp;
           }
           p1.next = preNext;
           return counter;
     }

     /** Util method to print the List. */
     private static void printList(Node head) {
           if(head==null) {
                System.out.println("List is null");
           }

           if(head.next==null) {
                System.out.print("List : "+head.data+" ");
                return;
           }

           Node next = head.next;
           System.out.print("List : "+head.data+" ");
           while(next!=null) {
                System.out.print(next.data+" ");
                next = next.next;
           }
     }

     /** Driver method. */
     public static void main(String[] args) {

           /*Node head = new Node(1);
           head.next = new Node(2);
           head.next.next = new Node(3);
           head.next.next.next = new Node(4);
           head.next.next.next.next = new Node(3);
           head.next.next.next.next.next = new Node(2);
           head.next.next.next.next.next.next = new Node(1);*/

           Node head = new Node(1);
           head.next = new Node(2);
           head.next.next = new Node(3);
           head.next.next.next = new Node(3);
           head.next.next.next.next = new Node(2);
           head.next.next.next.next.next = new Node(1);

           printList(head);
           String result = checkListIsPalindrome(head);
           System.out.println("\nList is "+result);
     }
}

This method takes O(n) time and O(1) extra space.

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...